Buerger's disease is a circulatory disease that is brought on by chronic inflammation of the blood vessels in the extremities. Also called thromboangiitis obliterans , Buerger's disease is most common with people who smoke. It normally affects the foot or lower leg, but it may occur in the hand, arm, or thigh as well. Early signs of Buerger’s disease are a tingling sensation like "pin pricks" and a burning sensation in the fingers and toes. It can lead to ulceration and gangrene; in severe cases, amputation may be required. There are other disorders associated with circulatory problems. When plaque or fatty deposits form along the walls of the arteries, it causes them to harden and constrict. Hypertension, or high blood pressure, results because the blood exerts greater force against the walls of the narrowed and/or  more rigid blood vessels. Hypertension can lead to stroke, angina pectoris (chest pain), kidney damage, and heart attack. Another serious circulatory condition is Raynaud's phenomenon , which is characterized by  constriction and spasm of the blood vessels in the body extremities, like fingers, toes, and tip of the nose. natural treatment cure medicine information herbal alternative healing nutrition

Cold, stress, smoking, and other factors may cause fingers and toes to become numb; extremities may appear colorless or bluish due to lack of circulation and arterial spasm. This disease  most commonly affects women and sometimes may lead to gangrene. Poor circulation can also result from varicose veins, which develop because of a loss and weakening of elasticity in the vein walls. click here to read more information

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An exact diagnosis of Buerger's disease "thromboangiitis obliterans" is difficult because it relies heavily excluding  other conditions. The most commonly followed diagnostic criteria are outlined below; however, the criteria tend to differ slightly from author to author and Olin proposes the following criteria:

1. Male between 20 to 40 years old but recently females have been diagnosed.

2. Current (or recent) history of tobacco use (smoking)

3. Presence of distal extremity ischemia that is indicated by claudication, pain at rest, ischemic ulcers or gangrene documented by noninvasive vascular testing such as an ultrasound test.

4. Excluding other autoimmune diseases, hypercoagulable states, and diabetes mellitus by lab tests.

5. Exclusion of a proximal source of emboli by both echocardiography and arteriography

6. Consistent arteriographic findings in the clinically involved and non-involved limbs of the body.

Buerger’s disease may be imitated by a variety of other diseases that cause diminished blood flow circulation to the the person's body extremities. These other diseases or disorders must be ruled out with an accurate evaluation, because their treatments may differ substantially from that of Buerger’s disease. For Buerger’s there is no treatment considered to be an effective cure.

Diseases with which Buerger’s disease might be confused include

1. Atherosclerosis - a build-up of cholesterol plaques in the arteries

2. Endocarditis - an infection of the lining of the heart

3. Other types of vasculitis

4. Raynaud’s phenomenon associated with connective tissue disorders (e.g., lupus or scleroderma)

5. Clotting disorders of the blood

6. Others








Angiograms of both the patient's upper and lower extremities may be helpful in making the diagnosis of Buerger’s disease. In the right clinical setting, certain angiographic findings are diagnostic of Buerger’s whose  findings include a corkscrew appearance of arteries that result from vascular damage, especially the arteries in the person's wrists and/or ankles. Angiograms can also show blockages or narrowings in several areas of both the arms and legs of the patient. These changes are normally particularly apparent in the blood vessels in the ulnar artery distribution.

To rule out the various other forms of vasculitis it is needed to exclude involvement of vascular regions atypical for Buerger’s disease, so it is in some cases necessary to perform angiograms of the person's other body regions such as a mesenteric angiogram.

Skin biopsies of the affected extremities are normally not performed because of concern that a biopsy site near an area that is poorly perfused with blood will not heal very well just causing additional problems.



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"The person who takes medicine must recover twice, once from the disease and once from the medicine." William Osler, M.D.

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"The necessity of teaching mankind not to take drugs and medicines, is a duty incumbent upon all who know their uncertainty and injurious effects; and the time is not far distant when the drug system will be abandoned." Charles Armbruster, M.D.


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